Samudrika Fishes

1. Rhinobatos granulayus Cuvier, 1829

Disc longer than wide, tapering to a pointed snout; rostral ridge joining at anterior end of snout; nostrils wide ; about half width of mouth; spiracles smaller than eye;1” dorsal origin behind vental fin; no anal fin; back coarsely tuberculated; small thorns on mid-line of snout and strong thorns on mind –dorsal side of body.

Body brownish above; snout buff brown; vental side whitish; dorsal and caudal fins grey .found on sandy bottom in shallow coastal waters. Indo –west Pacific, from Gulf of Oman, coasts of India, Andaman Islands, Sri Lanka to Indonesia.

2. Gymnothorax favagineus Bloch & Schneider

Body stout, elongated and snake-like; a row of long conical teeth on inter –maxilla. Body pale born to yellow with close set numerous large round back blotches, pattern continuing on to edge of mouth.

One of the largest moray eels attains 200cm. Found in coral reef areas, under coral ledges and in crevices. Feeds on crustaceans and small fish. Indo-Pacific.

3. Neoniphon Samara Forsskal, 1775)

Lower jaw strongly projecting. Body pinkish-silvery, silvery below with a dark reddish-black spot on each scale and a light reddish stripe along lateral line scales; large reddish –black spot on anterior part of spinous dorsal fin membrane; anterior soft rays dorsal, anal and margin of caudal fin lobes reddish.

Found around coral reefs in shallow areas. Indo-Pacific, from Red Sea, East coast of Africa, coasts of India, Andaman Islands To Japan and southwards Australia tom Hawaiian Islands. 

4. Eurypegasus draconis (Linnaeus, 1766) Short Dragon fish

Body broad and depressed ; tail short with few spines at end of each plate; head and body rings fused; rostrum small and disc like, rounded in font ; pectoral fins very broad and fan-like.

Colour brownish with scattered dark spots. Attains 8-10 cm. found in shallow weedy areas on reefs. Uncommon. Indo-West Pacific.

5. Solenostomus cyanopterus Bleeker

Body short and compressed encased in bony plates; body and inferior border of snout with scattered dermal appendages; a small barbell present at tip of lower jaw; caudal peduncle depth greater than its length; membrane of caudal beginning very close to 2nd dorsal and anal fins.

Body reddish-green with scattered black and white spots between 1st and 3rd dorsal spines and upper part of fin with scattered black spots; caudal fin brown with black spots; other fins whitish. Found in week beds near reef area. Indo-Pacific, from Red Sea, Madagascr to Mauritieus, Lakshadweep, coasts of India, Andaman is., Indonesia to Japan, New Guinea and Australia.

6. Aeoliscus strigatus (Gunther, 1861)

Body extremely compressed with sharp vental edge; mouth toothless; first dorsal spine with movable segment at its end. Body yellowish-brown with a black stripe from snout to base of caudal fin.

Found in small schools around corals reef areas. Indo-West Pacific, from Seychelles, Andaman & Nicobar Is., Indonesia to Japan and Hawaiian Islands.

7. Pterois antennata(Bloch, 1787)

Tips of pectoral rays long and filamentous, supra-orbital tentacle with black lateral flaps. Body reddish-brown with a dark brown bars and narrow white bars on head and body, the dark band from eye to angle of preopercle more prominent; caudal peduncle with thin diagonal bars; pectoral fins with large dark blotches; dorsal, anal and caudal fins with black spots; supra –orbital tentacle with dark cross bands. Found on reefs.

Indo-Pacific, from east coast of Africa to Lakshadweep, coast of India Andaman Is. To Japan and Australia to New Hebrides.

8. Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758)

Small dermal filaments on snout, preorbital and preopercular margin; supraobital tentacle long, longer than orbit; outer half of pectoral rays free with feather-like membranes. Body reddish with numerous dark brown cross bars and narrow pale interspaces; head with similar bands; dorsal, anal and caudal fins with black spots; ventral fins with small pearly spots and black margin.

Found around coral reefs in shallow areas. Indo – Pacific, from east coast of Africa to Lakshadweep, Andaman Is., Sri Lanka to Japan and Australia to Tuamotu Islands.

9. Diploprion bifasciatum (Double banded soap fish)

Yellow head, body and fins; dark brown to black eye bar and broad bar from mid dorsal fin to anal fin. Solitary or form small group. Coastal reefs, often in turbid water. Attains 25 cm. Indo – Asian Pacific.

10. Epinephelus Caeruleopunctatus (Bloch, 1790) White – spotted grouper

Body brownish; posterior head region; body and dorsal with scattered large whitish spots and some form pale mottling; dorsal, caudal and pectoral fins with narrow white margin; upper edge of maxillary groove black; juveniles with scattered white spots. Found near reef areas and caves; juveniles found in tide pools.

Indo – West Pacific, from Persian Gulf, east coast of Africa, Islands of Western Indian Ocean, coasts of India, Andaman Is., Sri Lanka to Japan and Palau to Fiji

11. Epinephelus fasciatus (forsskal, 1775) blacktip grouper

Very small scales on maxilla; mid – side of lower jaw 3 – 4 rows of teeth; spinous dorsal membrane incised. Body yellowish red with 5 boar dark orange – red bars on body; dorsal part of head and nape dark reddish –brown; rim of orbit black; outer triangular part of interspinous dorsal fin black.

Found on coral reefs and rocky bottom. Indo-pacific, from Red sea, east coast of Africa to Lakshadweep, coasts of India, Andaman Is. Sri lanka to Australia, Japan and Solomon to marquesas Islands.

12. Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepede, 1801) Blue – Yellow grouper

Rear nostrils much larger than front ones; mid – side of lower jaw with two rows of teeth; membrances of spinous dorsal not incised; caudal fin slightly emarginated. Body deep blue, anterior part of head , caudal peduncle and all fins yellow; dorsal, anal and vental fins blue basally; corners of caudal fin black.

Found around shallow reef areas. Indian Ocean, from Gulf of Aden, east coast of Africa, Islands of Western Indian Ocean , Sri Lanka, Andaman Is. and Sumatra.

13. Pseudanthias sqamipinnis peters (1855 Scale fin anthias)

Axillary scales present; dorsal and anal fins scaled; 3rd dorsal spine slightly elongate; scale rows around caudal peduncle 24; caudal fin lunate. Body orange yellow spot on each scale; a broad light pink band edged grey from eye to base of pectoral.

Found around shallow coral reef areas. Indo – West pacific, from Red Sea, east coast of Africa to coasts of India, Andaman Is., Australia to Marshall Islands.

14. Pseudanthias bimaculatus- (Smith, 1955) Two- spot anthias

Body dorsally reddish to reddish orange; ventrally fading to white; dorsal, anal and caudal fins yellow; dorsal and anal fins bordered by a blue line. The caudal fin is marginally lunate. Inhabits deep coastal drop – offs, in open water, a little away from the actual reef near to the sandy flats at depths of 15-20m. Found in small group of 12-15 individuals usually.

Occasionally seen form in groups with closely related species p. coopery which may lead to cross breeding. Indo – West Pacific: East Africa, Maldives and Indonesia, India: Andaman Islands (Ritchie’s Archipelago).

15. Chaetodon decussates Cuvier - 1829 Black – finned Vagabond

Body compressed and deep. Dorsal ana anal fins with blunt angle. Color whitish with six diagonal lines extending from upper posterior part of head to base of dorsal spines; 11 or 12 similar lines at right angle from previous lines towards anal fin; dorsal, anal, and caudal peduncle and its adjacent areas black; anal fin with yellow stripes; a dark bar through middle of caudal fin; a black band through eye connected at nape; tips of dorsal spines white.

Attains 15 to 20 cm. Very common on shallow protected reefs. Feeds on coral ployps, worms and crustacean and algae. Favorite aquarium pet. India to Thailand.

16. Chaetopon falcula Bloch, 1793

Body yellow, slightly lighter below with two triangular black blotches dorsally; a broad black band from nape through eye to isthmus; several vertical narrow black lines on body; black and around caudal peduncle; dorsal, anal and caudal fins yellow with sub – marginal black band; pectoral and ventral fins pale yellow.

Found around coral reef areas. Indo – West Pacific, from Red Sea, east coast of Africa to Philippines and to Tuamotu Island.

17. Pomacanthus annularis (Bloch, 1787)

Preoperculum spine longer than eye; soft dorsal acutely produced. Body purplish- blue with narrow yellow stripes; snout and cheek bluish – white; a curved blue-edged black bar through eye with a greenish yellow bar just behind that, confluent with yellow colour on forehead; a broad black bar at the level of pectoral.

Found near caves in coral reef areas. Indo – west Pacific, from red Sea, eat coast of Africa to Japan and Australia to Tuamotu Island.

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